Yesterday I was in Choctaw, Mississippi giving talk at the Mississippi Fruit and Vegetable Growers Association annual conference. The topic I delivered was “Site Selection Consideration for Orchards and Vineyards”. As I promised, I have put the entire presentation at the link below that can be downloaded as a PDF.
Recently I was invited to do a segment of the “Working Differently in Extension” podcast. The focus was on an article I wrote for the Journal of Extension entitled, “A View of Digital Scholarship in Extension“. In the podcast I discuss eXtension communities of practice, promotion and tenure, and ways that digital extension techniques have influenced what we do as extension professionals. You can listen to the entire broadcast by clicking on the link below (it runs about 22 minutes). Let me know what you think!
Working Differently in Extension 057 – Eric Stafne
A conversation with Eric Stafne, associate Extension professor at Mississippi State and administrative director of the National Grape Community of Practice, about his Journal of Extension article, “A View of Digital Scholarship in Extension.”
The Southern Region Small Fruits Consortium has a mission to involve collaborative efforts at various sites across the region between small fruit growers and grower organizations, industries and service organizations allied with and/or serving small fruit growers, agricultural extension programs and research stations working together to enhance the development of the small fruit industries in the region. The collaboratively publish information for growers and producers that should be priority reading. I’ve listed the links below to their important work.
- Bunch Grapes
Below is a short recap of the 2013 Muscadine Field Day, in case you missed it on TV.
You can also hear me talk about the field day and muscadines in general on The Gestalt Gardener radio program with Felder Rushing. If you want to hear that click the link below:
In January I will be giving a talk about online resources that are available for muscadines at the SE Regional Fruit & Vegetable Conference in Savannah, GA. My presentation will be on where the best, most useful information about muscadines is on the web and how to find it. Now, typically I use Google as my search engine of choice. In the past I’ve used Yahoo, Excite, Bing, Internet Explorer, and others, but I found that Google best suits my needs. One thing I don’t care for about search engines is that the top returns are usually not the best option. Don’t get “most popular” confused with “best”. Let’s look at an example:
I googled the word “muscadine”. The top three returns were from, 1) Wikipedia, 2) Southern Living, and 3) University of Florida Extension. The Wikipedia page is a thin description of the plant and some of its more notable health-related properties. There is no discussion on how to grow muscadines at all. So, if someone was interested in just discovering that muscadines exist then this page kind of fills that requirement, but there are far better web pages out there that do that. The Southern Living page is labeled as “The Complete Guide to Muscadine” which is laughable and entirely misleading; although the author does refer readers to local County Extension offices to get more information. This page is designed for the homeowner who has a vine or two and doesn’t desire to spend much time or energy on maintaining it. The third page from the University of Florida Extension is undoubtedly the best. This is a page anyone who is even remotely serious about muscadines should read. But why is it only the third return instead of number one?
I don’t pretend to know how Google and SEO work. For some reason, Google loves Wikipedia. Unfortunately, the entries in Wikipedia are often incomplete or sometimes wrong or outdated. The only time I use Wikipedia if it is on a subject that I don’t know a lot about and I find better links and references within the article to read. So, what is a better way to search and find credible information? Since I am in Extension and work with Fruit Crops and growers, my searches are mainly for information that has been scientifically tested and rigorously reviewed. One way to find this information in Google is to put your search term in the search box (i.e. “Muscadine”) and then add “site”, a semicolon, and “edu” after it (for example, “muscadine” site:edu). Although the search is not perfect (it misses some other good muscadine info on other trusted domains like gov and org) it does give one better options than just a general search. You can also perform this type of search under the “Advanced Search” options in Google. Another of my favorite tools is Google Scholar. This also has some limitations but can help with finding actual journal articles on certain topics. This can be found at scholar.google.com.
They key to using a search engine is trusting your own keen eye for poor returns. The more one uses a search engine the more is understood about what kind of returns will show up and how to best filter them. Sometimes a general search does exactly what you need, but other times it is a quagmire of junk that requires time and effort. There are times I spend a monumental amount of time finding what I need because of the returns I get, but by using a couple tips like those I mention above, online searches can be more productive and less time consuming.
In case the Muscadine Field Day wasn’t enough for you, there are other events to help you learn about muscadines (and other fruit crops).
First up is another Muscadine Field Day, this one in Arkansas (http://arkansasagnews.uark.edu/7849.htm) :
The University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture will be hosting a Muscadine Workshop and Field Day at the Fruit Research Station at Clarksville on Thursday, September 12th. We have invited two prominent speakers to this workshop to give you updates on muscadine production and postharvest issues. In addition, we will have a display of muscadine cultivars and selections grown at this facility and a tour that will emphasize our muscadine breeding program. Whether you are thinking about expanding your existing planting, changing to newer cultivars, planting a new vineyard, or looking for marketing opportunities, this is a great opportunity!
This workshop is partially funded by the Arkansas Agriculture Department Specialty Crop Block Grant Program.
2:30-3:00 pm Registration
3:00-3:15 pm Welcome by Dr. John Clark and Dr. Renee Threlfall, University of Arkansas
3:15-4:00 pm Issues in Muscadine Production, Sara Spayd, Professor, North Carolina State University
4:00-4:45 pm Postharvest Issues with Muscadine and Selection and Cultivar Differences, Penelope Perkins-Veazie, Professor, North Carolina State University
4:45-5:00 pm Update on Muscadine Postharvest Research Project, Derek Barchenger, Graduate Assistant, University of Arkansas
5:00-5:30 pm Arkansas Muscadine Breeding Program Progress, John Clark, University Professor, University of Arkansas
5:30-6:30 pm Catered Dinner
6:30-7:30 pm Vineyard Tour of the University of Arkansas Muscadine Breeding Program
The registration fee for this workshop is $25.00. Registration and payment deadline is Thursday, August 29, 2013. For online registration and payment with check or credit card visit
For other registration information contact Katie Hanshaw (Phone 479-754-2406, Fax: 479-754-7529, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
Second is the Gulf South Blueberry Growers Association annual field day and trade show on October 10, 2013. I will be posting more information on this event in the coming days.
This will be an excellent Field Day and Trade Show. The major players in blueberry harvesting, grading and farm equipment will be on hand to exhibit their latest, most advanced equipment. Suppliers, harvesting and packaging materials, wind machines, pneumatic pruners and a number of other items used in the blueberry industry, will on exhibit. Blue River Farm will conduct tours of their farm and show us techniques that have contributed to their success.
We will begin with a short program to discuss Blue River Farm and highlight practices and products that contribute to their success. We will then take time to visit the exhibitors and look at the products and equipment. After lunch, farm tours will be conducted and equipment will be demonstrated. There is a lot packed into the program and you don’t want to miss any of it.
Directions to Blue River Farm – The farm is located between Mount Olive and Hot Coffee, MS on Highway 532. The address is 1876 Highway 532, Mount Olive, MS 39119
From U.S. Highway 49 at Mount Olive, turn East on Highway 35, cross the railroad track and bridge, take a right on Highway 532, travel 9.3 miles, Blue River Farm is on the Right.
From Laurel, turn West on Highway 84 and travel 16.6 miles, turn North on Highway 532 just past Leaf River bridge, Blue River Farm is 6.5 miles on the Left.
From Collins – turn East on Highway 84 and travel 10.4 miles, turn North on Highway 532, Blue River Farm is 6.5 Miles on the left.
The phone number at Blue River Farm is 601-797-3896, if you have trouble finding it.
If you have questions about the Blueberry Growers Field Day and Trade Show contact John Braswell at 601-795-5558 or email@example.com
Third is the Fall Flower & Garden Fest, October 18 & 19 in Crystal Springs. Details on this event, such as the program, have not been released yet. Get more information at this link: http://msucares.com/fallfest/
The 2013 Fall Flower & Garden Fest will be held Friday and Saturday, October 18 & 19, at the Truck Crops Experiment Station in Crystal Springs, Mississippi. Crystal Springs is about 25 miles south of Jackson. Hours are from 9 a.m. until 2 p.m. both days and food vendors will have food and drinks available.
This is the largest home gardening show in the Southeast. Average attendance is 6,000 people over the two-day event. Admission and parking are free. The garden, grounds, seminars, and one of the tour wagons are handicapped accessible.
Fourth is the Mississippi Fruit and Vegetable Growers Conference (http://www.msfruitandveg.com/):
We are excited to announce that our 2013 Conference and Trade Show will be held in beautiful Choctaw, Mississippi at Pearl River Resort’s Silver Star Conference Center. This year’s conference will be a three day event beginning November 13th with golf at the Dancing Rabbit Golf Course. We will begin bright and early Thursday morning with informative sessions all day long ending the evening with our Magnolia Fresh Farm to Plate hour including drinks and hor d’oeuvres prepared from food provided by our very own Mississippi growers! We will have several more exciting sessions Friday morning with lunch provided by the Silver Star chefs followed by an opportunity to tour the Choctaw Nation’s recent farm expansion. Don’t miss this wonderful chance to expand your growing possibilities!
Saturday was a fine day to have a gathering. The weather wasn’t too hot and the rain held off until the very end.
The first speaker was Dr. Sam Chang, who came all the way from Starkville to give an update on the Food Science department at MSU and what kind of research they hope to do with muscadine grapes in the future.
Dr. Chang was followed by Dr. Donna Marshall who encouraged everyone to eat the skins and seeds of the muscadine for maximum nutritional benefit.
Dr. Barbara Smith was next to address the crowd. She explained the effect of fungicide applications on muscadines — to control fungal diseases, but also the effect on other compounds in the plant.
From diseases we went to insects, where Dr. Blair Sampson explained about bees, wasps, and other insects in muscadine vineyards.
We ended with Dr. Stephen Stringer talking about cultivars and the vineyard set-up at the McNeill Experiment Station.
- Most attendees heard about the field day from their county extension agent (40%) or another source (radio, market bulletin, neighbor, etc.) (46%). Only 7% got the info from the newspaper or the internet (7%).
- Overall the attendees said they learned A Lot (50-100% knowledge gain) (86%) or Some (25-50%) (14%).
The 2013 Muscadine Field Day was a great success and we look forward to doing it again next year. If you attended this year and have some comments do so here. Also, you can find the handouts here: http://msucares.com/pubs/infosheets/is1445.pdf and here: http://msucares.com/pubs/publications/p2290.pdf.
If you were not able to attend, we hope to see you next year!
8:30-9:00 AM Registration
9:00-9:10 AM Welcome and Introductions
Dr. Eric T. Stafne
Fruit Crop Specialist, Mississippi State University
Dr. Patricia Knight
Department Head, Coastal Research and Extension Center, Mississippi State University
9:10-9:20 AM MSU Food Science and Muscadines
Dr. Sam Chang
Professor and Head, Department of Food Science, Nutrition and Health Promotion, MSU
9:20-9:30 AM Health Aspects of Muscadine Grapes
Dr. Donna Marshall
9:30-9:40 AM Fungicide applications affect fruit diseases and quality of muscadine grape
Dr. Barbara Smith
USDA Plant Pathologist
9:40-9:50 AM Overview of Insects and Muscadines
Dr. Blair Sampson
9:50-10:00 AM The McNeill Muscadine Vineyard
Dr. Stephen Stringer
USDA Muscadine Breeder
10:00-11:00 AM – Vineyard Exploration and Q&A
11:00 AM – Field Day Completed
Another teaser for the 2013 Muscadine Field Day — see the abstract below provided by Dr. Barbara Smith, USDA-ARS Plant Pathologist.
Fungicides can significantly reduce losses due to disease in the yield and quality of muscadine grapes. In four studies fungicides were applied individually or as part of a full season schedule from early bloom until harvest to three muscadine grape cultivars. The objective was to compare the effect of a full season treatment of 9-12 fungicide applications applied on a 10-day interval to fewer applications of individual fungicides on disease incidence, yield, and berry quality. Foliar and berry diseases were rated on visual scales. Sugars, acids, ellagic acid, and resveratrol content were determined by HPLC.
Four studies explored the relationship between disease control, berry quality, and phytochemical content following full season or early season application fungicides. In each study foliar and fruit diseases were lower in the full season treatment compared to the control, each fungicide was effective in reducing at least one disease, and some treatments with fewer applications reduced fruit diseases to the same level as the full season treatment. In Study 1, the full season treatment of 9 applications applied at 10-days intervals and the azoxystrobin treatment of 3 applications applied at 30-day intervals resulted in significantly higher yields, lower fruit disease scores, and more asymptomatic berries than the control treatment. In Study 2, four applications of the azoxystrobin, myclobutanil, and the combination fungicide, cyprodinil plus fludioxonil applied at 30-day intervals were as effective in reducing total berry diseases as the full season schedule of 12 applications (three fungicides alternated at 10-day intervals). In Study 3, three fungicides were applied on an alternating schedule every 10 days beginning at bloom and stopping at various pre-harvest intervals. There were no significant differences in vine vigor, foliar diseases scores, percentage of asymptomatic berries, or bitter rot scores due pre-harvest interval. In Study 4, there was not a significant difference in the percentage of asymptomatic berries between the full season treatment of eight applications and early season treatment of four applications or in the bitter rot and total disease scores for five of the fungicide treatments. Data indicate that fungicide applications can be stopped as early as six weeks before harvest without significant effects on berry diseases.
Studies 1 and 3 also investigated the effect of fungicide treatments on berry quality and phytochemcial content. In Study 1, significant differences were found in pH, TA, fructose, glucose, tartaric acid, and resveratrol levels. Total resveratrol was lower in the skins of berries from the full season and azoxystrobin treatments than from the control and other fungicide treatments. Berries from the least efficacious treatments for berry diseases had almost ten times as much resveratrol as those from the full season and azoxystrobin treatments. In Study 3, ellagic acid content was lower in berries from the spray treatment than from the not sprayed and control treatments. Total resveratrol content was approximately four times higher in skins of berries that did not receive fungicide sprays than in those that did. Resveratrol levels in the skins of berries from fungicide treatments were very low even if the last fungicide application was 8 weeks before harvest.
Data from these four studies indicate that the number of fungicide applications required for control of muscadine grape diseases can be reduced without an increase in berry rot disease severity. The most effective fungicides reduced berry diseases with as few as four applications compared to 12 applications in the full season schedules. Fungicides that controlled berry disease had an effect on berry quality including lowering the content of the beneficial phytoalexin, resveratrol.
As a lead-up to our Annual Muscadine Field Day on Saturday, Dr. Donna Marshall provided me a sneak preview on what she will be discussing. See it below in great detail!
Storage Retention of Stilbene, Ellagic acid, Flavonol, and Phenolic content of Muscadine Grape Cultivars.
Dr. Donna Marshall, USDA-ARS Thad Cochran Southern Horticulture Laboratory, Poplarville, MS
Stilbenes are a small class of phenylpropanoids characterized by a 1,2-diphenylethylene backbone. Stilbenes are synthesized in grape berries under natural environmental conditions (Jeandet, et al., 1999), but are increased by the up-regulation of defense genes encoding pathogenesis-related proteins (Chong, et al., 2009). The cis- and trans-isomers of resveratrol, a pharmacologically important stilbene, are present in the skin during all ripening stages, but are almost totally absent from the pulp (Chong, et al. 2009). Specific accumulation of resveratrol in the berry skin results from the localization of stilbene synthase (STS), the pivotal enzyme for stilbene biosynthesis. As a defense mechanism, stilbenes display potent antifungal effects as well as function in dormancy and growth inhibition in plants (Croteau, et al., 2000). From a pharmacological perspective, scientists have been reporting for over a decade the various ways that the stilbene, resveratrol, can positively affect health (Arichi, et al., 1982, Brakenhiem et al., 2001, DeSanti, et al., 2000a, DeSanti, et al., 2000b, El-Mowafy, 2002, Jang, et al., 1997, Kimura et al., 1985, Kinsella, et al., 1993, Lu and Sorreno, 1999). Piceid, resveratrol 3-O-β-D-glucoside, also exhibits activity comparable to resveratrol (Romero-Perez, et al., 1999) Resveratrol and piceid exist in the cis form, which is an isomer of the trans form. In early studies trans-resveratrol (TRes) was shown to inhibit platelet aggregation, inhibit the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins, reduce the level of triacylglycerol and protect the liver from lipid peroxidation (Romero-Perez, 1999). Since glycosidase is known to be present in the digestive tract, it is possible that piceid could be converted to resveratrol and absorbed during digestion (Hackett, 1986). Therefore it is important to consider all isomers and glucosides of TRes.
Ellagic acid is commonly present in other fruits, such as raspberry, strawberry, and blackberry, but is absent in all other Vitis species. Ellagic acid in muscadine grapes is expressed as free ellagic acid, ellagic acid glycosides, and ellagitannins (Talcott and Lee, 2002). The presence of ellagic acid and its derivatives in plants is of interest and has been widely studied because of its antiproliferative and antioxidant properties. The antiproliferative properties are due to its ability to directly inhibit DNA binding of certain carcinogens, including nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (Lesca, 1983). Ellagic acid also has a chemoprotective effect in cellular models by reducing oxidative stress (Tallcott and Lee, 2002, Lesca, 1983. Patrana-Bonilla, 2003, Mertens-Talcott, et al., 2003, Stoner and Morse, 1997, Khanduja, 1999) . Ellagic acid and its derivatives are being aggressively investigated for chemoprevention. It has been demonstrated that extracts of fruits containing ellagic acid derivatives are more powerful than individual substances. This is because there are multiple phenolic substances in a fruit that can act synergistically with the ellagic acid compounds within the biological processes that involve cancer initiation and growth (Mertens-Talcott et al., 2003, Mertens-Talcott and Percival, 2005, Mertens-Talcott, et al., 2005) The presence of ellagic acid and quercetin in muscadine grape could add value and marketability to the crop due to the possible health benefits (Patel, 1955, Talcott and Lee, 2002).
Phenylpropanoids, or phenolics are a large family of secondary metabolites involved in plant response to abiotic and biotic stresses. Phenolics are ubiquitous in the plant kingdom and are the most abundant secondary metabolites found in plants (Amakura, 2000). Many phenolics not only protect the parent plant, but also exhibit significant pharmacological benefits. Phenolic compounds play an important role in overall food properties, as they are generally involved in defense against ultraviolet radiation or as phytoalexins (Amakura, et al., 2000, Singleton, 1980, Zaat et al., 1987, Dixon, 1986). Phenolics may also play a role in the regulation of plant metabolism (Laks and Pruner, 1989). Polyphenols represent the third most abundant constituent in grapes and wines after carbohydrates and fruit acids (Singleton, 1980). Phenolics are mainly distributed as 28-35% in skin, 60-70% in seed and less than 10% in the pulp of the grape (Shi, et al., 2003). Phenolics contribute to the bitterness and astringency of fruits and are also considered to be the most important compounds affecting flavor and color differences in wines. Analysis of total phenolics is used to estimate the antioxidant capacities of fresh fruits and vegetables (Thaipong, et al., 2006). In a study of anticancer activities of muscadine grape phenolics, 50% inhibition of cancer cell population growth for colon cancer cell lines was observed at concentrations of 1-7 mg/mL of muscadine skin extracts (Yi, et al., 2005). Hudson, et al. (2007) found that muscadine grape skin extract inhibited tumor cell growth in all transformed prostate cancer cell lines tested. The higher total phenolic content present in muscadine grapes compared to other Vitis species is attributed to high ellagic acid, gallic acid, and flavonoid glycoside concentrations (Talcott and Lee, 2002. Lesca, 1983, Patrana-Bonilla, et al., 2003, Mertens-Talcott, et al., 2003, Yilmaz and Toledo, 2004).
Another unique attribute of muscadine fruit chemistry is the present of anthocyanins as 3,5-diglucosides of delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin, and malvidin in non-acylated forms (Flora, 1978, Goldy et al., 1986, Lamikanra, 1988). Though absorption of anthocyanins appears to be low in humans (Prior, 2004), it seems likely that cells in which they function in defense of oxidative stress must concentrate the anthocyanins or one of their derivatives (Galli, et al., 2002). Anthocyanins are known to protect blood vessels in humans. They also play a role in cancer prevention. There are more than 80 publications that discuss the ability of different anthocyanins to prevent different kinds of cancer (Hartle, et al., 2005).
Also unique to muscadine grapes is the presence of myricetin in the bronze grapes, as this flavonol is not present in white V. vinifera grapes (Flora, 1978). Flavonols are extensively studied compounds found in muscadine grapes. In humans, protection against carcinogenesis is a widely documented effect of flavonols (Williamson, and Manach, 2005).
One of the most touted possible effects of myricetin is in fighting cancer. As an antioxidant, it assists the body in getting rid of substances called free radicals that are involved in causing many types of cancer including prostate and lung cancer. The body’s metabolism of flavonoids may also help the body eliminate other carcinogens; the effects on enzymes may also have effects on the rate of cancer growth. Study of these effects is ongoing.
Another reputed effect of myricetin is the reduction of cholesterol. It is supposed to inhibit the uptake, or absorption, of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol which is harmful to a person’s health. It also is thought to prevent a process called oxidation of the LDL cholesterol which makes it more harmful and able to damage various body tissues. Several other flavonoids are also supposed to have similar cholesterol reduction effects.
Historically used in the treatment of fever, Myricetin is also supposed to be effective as an anti-inflammatory substance. It is thought to affect the actions of a few of the enzymes that contribute to inflammation. It has also been used to treat diarrhea, particularly in children. It has no known negative side effects and is generally considered safe for use as a supplement. Anyone considering taking this supplement should discuss it with a medical professional to avoid potential issues such as drug interactions.
Quercetin, a flavonol, has been extensively studied, and has been shown to protect against DNA mutations, colon cancer and heart disease (Hollman, and Katan, 1999). Quercetin relaxes the blood vessel wall (Rendig, et al., 2001) and increases the production of enzymes that dissolve blood clots (Abou-Agag, et al., 2001). Research has recently shown that ellagic acid combined with quercetin act together to affect the growth rate and the path by which cancer cells die. The combination of these two compounds changes the activity of regulatory proteins and enzymes called MAP kinases that regulate cell division and viability (Mertens-Talcott, and Percival, 2005).
Most of the research on quercetin and cancer has been done in cell culture or animal studies. These types of studies can suggest possible helpful effects, but they do not provide proof that such effects can be achieved in humans. It is still unclear how well quercetin is absorbed by the human body when taken by mouth. Controlled clinical trials are needed to show whether quercetin has helpful properties in humans.
Studies done in cell cultures have shown that quercetin has activity against some types of cancer cells. This may be due to its antioxidant or anti-inflammatory properties, or it may be due to other mechanisms. Recent studies suggest that quercetin can slow the growth of cancer cells and can help foster apoptosis, a form of natural cell death that doesn’t happen in most cancer cells. Some studies in animals have shown that quercetin may help protect against certain types of cancer, particularly colon cancer.
Studies in humans have mainly been population-based and have focused on the role of flavonoids in the diet as a group as opposed to quercetin in particular. These types of studies are not as conclusive as clinical trials. They cannot prove cause and effect but often suggest links that can then be tested in clinical trials. While some of these population-based studies have found that people with diets high in flavonoids may have lower risk of breast, lung, pancreatic, and other types of cancer, it is not clear what role quercetin played in their findings. One clinical study of people with a strong inherited tendency to develop colorectal cancer found that the combination of quercetin and curcumin supplements decreased the number and size of precancerous rectal tumors. No other clinical trials testing quercetin’s ability to prevent or treat cancer have been reported in the medical literature. Clinical trials are needed to further clarify quercetin’s possible benefits.
In addition to cancer prevention and treatment, preliminary studies have also suggested potential value for quercetin in prostatitis (inflamed prostate) and heart disease. Further studies are needed before any recommendations can be made.
Until conclusive clinical research findings emerge, it is reasonable to include foods that contain quercetin as part of a balanced diet with an emphasis on fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains. The interaction between certain phytochemicals and the other compounds in foods is not well understood, but it is unlikely that any single compound offers the best protection against cancer. A balanced diet that includes 5 or more servings a day of fruits and vegetables, along with foods from a variety of other plant sources such as nuts, seeds, whole grain cereals, and beans, is likely to be more effective in reducing cancer risk than eating one particular phytochemical in large amounts.
Kaempferol is a flavonoid found in many edible plants and in plants or botanical products commonly used in traditional medicine (e.g. Ginkgo biloba, Tilia spp, Equisetum spp, Moringa oleifera, Sophora japonica and propolis). Some epidemiological studies have found a positive association between the consumption of foods containing kaempferol and a reduced risk of developing several disorders such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Numerous preclinical studies have shown that kaempferol and some glycosides of kaempferol have a wide range of pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancer, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, antidiabetic, anti-osteoporotic, estrogenic/antiestrogenic, anxiolytic, analgesic and antiallergic activities.
As noted, much work has been done on health benefits of individual chemicals found in muscadine grapes, but thus far there has not been a study showing the concentrations of these compounds in a variety of muscadines. Most studies have only looked at a few muscadines varieties such as, ‘Noble’, ‘Ison’, and ‘Carlos’ because these are the most widely grown for production and wine aspects. A more comprehensive look at muscadine cultivars would reveal, some “hidden treasures” in lesser known cultivars. A previous study (Marshall et al., 2012) examined the important phytochemical concentrations in the muscadine fruit tissue of 21 cultivars at harvest. From these results a subset of 11 cultivars were selected for analysis after 14 days of storage. The criteria for selection were based on the levels of ellagic acid and flavonols, myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol found at harvest.